Examples include open versus closed thinking, primary process (not bound by strict adherence to reality) versus secondary process (conscious, rational, logical, and oriented to reality) thinking, or reproductive versus productive thinking. Of course, this system is highly vulnerable to error, … Our focus remains divergent thinking—what it is, how it happens, when it is necessary. Mumford, in Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), 2011. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. 8 Divergent and convergent thinking are two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and address challenges. Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, which results in multiple possible solutions in short amount of time. This test is composed by word-based exercises—verbal form (e.g., ask-and-guess causes and consequences, product improvement, unusual uses), and picture-based exercises—figural form (e.g., picture completion starting from given stimuli of shapes). Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. Admittedly, Guilford’s Structure of Intellect model was pointedly criticized, mostly because of the statistical methods used to separate the 180 cells (Carroll 1968). Iveta Eimontaite, University of Hull Divergent thinking/doing tests are scored in terms of fluency (number of ideas/motor solutions), flexibility (number of categories, mutually exclusive, encompassing ideas/motor solutions), and originality (uniqueness or infrequency of ideas, or overall evaluation of motor solutions by at least two independents judges). Given that alpha wave activity is an inverse measure of cortical activity, this finding confirms that creativity is linked to task-related variation in cortical function. Accessibility Statement. The Alternate Uses Test is one of the most popular divergent thinking tasks. They also used some other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness. Course delivery includes variables such as how long the training lasts, the amount of lecture used, the amount of practice time given to trainees, the nature of the practice exercises, the amount of feedback provided to trainees, as well as other variables related to how the instructor communicated material to trainees in order to facilitate learning the content incorporated into the course. > Vol. It is closely associated with spontaneity, random thoughts, non-conformity, creativity and thinking “out-of-the-box”. On the contrary, convergent thinking dictates that there must be a certain answer with the highest value. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. Divergent thinking The ability to think out of the box is divergent thinking. Therefore, the generation of original solutions during divergent thinking can be enabled by the combination of related and unrelated categories. Analogical thinking or problem solving, being understood as the use of like problems solutions in guiding solutions of new problems (Goldstein, 2010). The 25-30-year-olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. To the degree that tests of divergent thinking are reliable and valid, they can be taken as estimates of the potential for creative thought. Edward de Bono (1993) made an interesting and popular contribution to the discussion of creative thinking. This … The composite of divergent thinking was correlated (both zero-order and part correlations) with the measure of global change and general managerial creativity, but not with the incremental change. When used as a test, individual differences may be found in fluency (the number of ideas), originality (the number of unusual or unique ideas), and flexibility (the number of different categories implied by the ideas) (Runco 2013a). Basadur, Graen, and Green stated that engineers in an industrial organization showing significant improvements in problem finding and problem-solving immediately after training and this finding held 2 weeks later on work related measures. Creativity and divergent thinking are key to solving problems. Thus, access to different conceptual categories enables the activation of more original ideas. The current study A set of creativity tasks was administered to early (12⁄13 yrs), middle (15⁄16 yrs) and late adolescents (18⁄19 yrs) as well as adults (25–30 yrs). Researchers believe that you can kickstart divergent thinking with the three B’s: bed, bath, and the bus. Presumably, homospatial thinking is the opposite of heterospatial thinking—which keeps ideas locked away from each other in separate spaces. Divergent thinking, which is closely associated with creativity and the ability to conjure a multitude of potential solutions, can be enhanced through the use of analogical thinking. David H. Cropley, in Creativity in Engineering, 2015. The goal of divergent thinking is to focus on a subject, in a free-wheeling way, to think of solutions that may not be obvious or predetermined. Not surprisingly, divergent thinking tests are among the most commonly used in creativity research. Course design includes the length of a creativity course, the types of practice opportunities trainees are given (if any), and how the different training sessions are scheduled (i.e., massed versus distributed). Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. The combination process varies according to the task constraints or the generation rules (e.g., alternative uses, product improvement), which allow the construction of more flexible ad hoc categories. Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. All ideas are valid for idea stimulation in divergent thinking. Thinking & Reasoning, 23 (3) (2017), pp. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jps/vol8/iss1/2, Home | The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking is the most widely used test to assess divergent thinking and creativity. Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. In divergent thinking, the multiple answers are of equal value. Solutions for Clients Across Business Requirements . According to him, there are two ways to find a solution. As discussed by several creativity researchers since the development of the divergent thinking construct, creativity can also be thought of as the generation of novel, useful solutions to problems (i.e., problem-solving). … Some studies showed that, when subjects increased eye blink rates, their performance in the alternative uses test also increased (Akbari Chermahini & Hommel, 2010; Ueda, Tominaga, Kajimura, & Nomura, 2016), suggesting that spontaneous eye blinks are an index of attentional disengagement from the external world, implicating improvement in divergent thinking. This program was developed by Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages of creative problem-solving. Selcuk Acar, Mark A. Runco, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds … Laurie Miller and Lynette Tippett studied the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match Problems in patients with focal brain lesions. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. Of course, these three explanations are not mutually exclusive, and possibly all contribute to divergent production. It involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. However, predictably, a different picture emerged from fMRI data. Divergent Insights: We help turn Fortune! This is highly reminiscent of the convergent-divergent-convergent pattern that I discussed in an earlier chapter, and also emphasizes the importance of understanding not only how to think divergently (or convergently) but also when and why we do so. The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. Electroencephalographic studies of divergent thinking yield highly variegated results. Scratchley and Hakstian (2000–2001) used a battery of divergent thinking tests that were developed for industrial settings, including three components: the brainstorming exercise, which requires finding many solutions for a management problem; the similarities exercise, which entails finding many similarities between two different objects; and the association exercise which is about finding a word that connects three dissimilar words. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. As additional solutions are generated, not only is there a need to update previous responses, but also to resolve the conflict between responses. > Abstract: Divergent thinking (DT) is an important constituent of creativity that captures aspects of fluency and originality. The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. The ability to generate diverse ideas (divergent thinking) is valuable in solving creative problems (e.g., insight problems); yet, however advantageous, this ability is insufficient to solve the problem alone and requires the ability to logically deduce an assessment of correctness of … Convergent thinking is often used in accordance with divergent thinking. > This course was conducted as a lecture along with a discussion of the model presented to trainees. Studies show that if you get a full night’s sleep, you will be twice as likely to solve a problem than if you stay up all night. The convergence of neuropsychological and imaging results provides strong support for the role of right ventral lateral PFC in flexible strategy shifts in the context of Match Problems. Available at: From this perspective divergent thinking is a kind of problem solving. 1 (2015), Differential Modulation of Performance in Insight and Divergent Thinking Tasks with tDCS, Vinod Goel, York University, University of Hull, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale San CamilloFollow Their results have shown that patients with focal right frontal lobe lesions were impaired specifically on those match problems that required set shifts. Rothenberg (1983) introduced the idea of janusian thinking, naming it after the Roman god Janus, who had two faces and thus could look in two directions at the same time so that he had the ability to deal simultaneously with pieces of information that would not normally be processed together. openness), and insight. Also, a main effect was found for anonymity. Almost all multiple choice tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to use convergent reasoning. Zig where others zag. Members of organizations often approach creative ideas with skepticism or even resistance. This indicates that the characteristics of the task are reflected in the activations perceived in imaging technologies. Cropper, K. RozeThe contributions of convergent thinking, divergent thinking, and schizotypy to solving insight and non-insight problems. and divergent thinking (Guilford, 1967). Divergent thinking is cognition that leads in various directions. It is true that there are an infinite number of ways that passengers could be carried, but achieving a practical solution dictates that many of these will be rejected during the stage of convergent analysis that follows our divergent synthesis. Divergent thinking tests are also used in numerous educational programs and in various organizational training packages. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. Here are sample items from Binet and Simon’s (1905) first test of intelligence. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. Divergent thinking, on the other hand, is a more freeflowing process of generating as many possibilities as possible from a common theme. Convergent reasoning or thinking is similar to that which has been termed deductive reasoning. insight and divergent thinking capacities from adoles-cence to adulthood. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389000777, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124105126000011, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389002260, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123747143000069, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750389000315, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002254000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128097908000145, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128164006000043, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750006001129, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002254000057, Encyclopedia of Creativity (Second Edition), Why You are Probably More Creative (and Less Creative) Than You Think, The relationships between abstraction and creativity, Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968, Baughman & Mumford, 1995; Mobley, Doares, & Mumford, 1992, Akbari Chermahini & Hommel, 2010; Ueda, Tominaga, Kajimura, & Nomura, 2016, Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Second Edition). Divergent thinking is also loosely called ‘lateral thinking’, a term coined by the thinking guru Edward De Bono – author of ‘Six Thinking Hats’. It’s a straight forward process that focuses on figuring out the most effective answer to a problem. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. In addition, divergent doing tasks have also been developed (e.g., Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968) to assess divergence in motor domain, for example, asking participants to produce as many actions as possible on an agility ladder laid on the ground (e.g., stepping, skipping). Ames and Runco (2005) tested the usefulness of SWOT (the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis as an adapted version of divergent thinking tasks to predict entrepreneurship. Visual and verbal divergent thinking can also be scored in terms of elaboration (numbers of details provided along with the ideas). Divergent thinking has long been viewed as an important component of creative problem solving. Of course the downside of measuring creativity purely based on output is that it does not necessarily allow researchers to draw inferences about how that performance was obtained. Some of these are conventional, and some original. The role of the right dorsal lateral PFC in conflict detection and/or resolution is widely recognized. Water logic, by contrast, allows ideas to flow together from many directions according to the natural pathways in the material in question, just as water flows along cracks and depressions in the ground where there is no resistance, and forms pools and eventually rivers (creative ideas). The information and ideas obtained as a result of divergent thinking can be structured using convergent thinking to produce a single most effective answer. Secondly, divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories. Imitation mini-trombone 5. Lateral Thinking. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Andrew Marvell Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies Archaeology and Landscapes Studies Research Centre / Wetland Archaeology and Environments Research Centre Blaydes Maritime Centre Centre for Applied Research and Evaluation Centre for British Politics Centre for City and Regional Studies Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Centre for End of Life Studies Centre for … For the next 35 years he attempted to prove exactly this. Marginal characteristics of a concept or object that are not central to its usual definition are emphasized and brought into juxtaposition with similar characteristics of other concepts and objects to yield unexpected associations. Divergent thinking should be the basis of the generation phase, while convergent thinking should be the basis of the exploration phase. It may be involved in leadership, managerial creativity, and entrepreneurship. Whereas some match problems can be solved by a sequence of generate-evaluate cycles, others involve start states that create strong mental sets that implicitly obstruct certain transformations. They also found an interaction of transformational leadership and anonymity for flexibility. Jung (2000–2001) compared transformational and transactional leadership in the conditions of real versus nominal brainstorming groups. After an initial period of divergent thinking, where diverse ideas are introduced, groups have to organize that information, focus on what’s most important, and make decisions in order to move forward into the phase of convergent thinking. Unlike divergent thinking with convergent thinking there is usually a correct answer. While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Pretend play relates to and facilitates processes—divergent thinking, insight, imagination, and affect expression—relevant to creativity and creative problem solving (Dansky 1980; Fisher 1992; Moore and Russ 2008; Russ and Grossman-McKee 1990). Here’s a sample brainstorm for “paper clip” uses: 1. Furthermore, set shifts are facilitated by mental representations of the start state that are more abstract and ambiguous than the one provided in the problem statement. Divergent thinking is a crucial component of effective problem-solving. The term “divergent thinking” refers to that strategy of solving problems characterized by the proposal of a multiplicity of possible solutions in an attempt to determine the one that works. The differences between divergent thinking in the top-down sense and divergent thinking in the bottom-up sense may seem trivial, and indeed, this is of little consequence to the general concept of divergent thinking. Divergent Thinking and Brainstorming in Perspective 313 divergent thinking can be cultivated through training alone and these attitudes linger for several weeks after the training is completed (Basadur, Graen, & Scandura, 1986; Basadur, Wakabayashi, & Takai, 1992). convergent and divergent thinking Convergent thinking is a practical way of deciding among existing alternatives. Trainees then completed a set of exercises to practice the techniques they learned during training. Specifically, Vinod Goel and Oshin Vartanian have shown that whereas engagement in Match Problems was associated with activation in left dorsal lateral PFC and right ventral lateral PFC, the latter structure was activated exclusively when subjects successfully solved problems that required set shifting. FAQ | The reasons for rejecting solution options in the engineering design process may range from cost (a solution is too expensive) and technical feasibility (a solution is impossible to implement) to safety (a solution is demonstrably unsafe) and risk (a solution poses an unacceptably high likelihood of a serious negative outcome). J.P. Guilford is usually given credit for distinguishing between convergent and divergent thinking, but a few earlier scientists did recognize the value of ideation. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. The Journal of Problem Solving: Vol. In contrast to divergent thinking, convergent thinking involves seeing–recognizing the similarity or the commonality of phenomena that appear to be different or combining and joining two or more different observations or ideas together so that they provide additional information, for example, putting the pieces of a puzzle together so they make a complete picture. Second, as subjects generate and evaluate hypotheses, they need to keep track of successful and unsuccessful attempts. According to psychoanalytic theory (A. J. Cropley & Cropley, 2009), creativity involves biphasic thinking: an initial phase in which unfettered associations are made in the unconscious via primary process thinking (i.e., novelty is generated) followed by a phase in which these associations are admitted into consciousness in the realistic form of secondary process thinking (i.e., they are explored). Divergent thinking (DT) is an important constituent of creativity that captures aspects of fluency and originality. One benefit of using performance as a criterion for creativity is that performance is ultimately the outcome of primary concern in real-world settings. A motor-form divergent thinking task, consisting in producing acted motor forms (e.g., a basketball player), has been also developed (Palmiero et al., 2019). This kind of thinking comes in a free-flowing manner, with no limitations to time and imaginations. Unlike conventional thinking, which is strictly sequential in nature and follows a set of logical steps, lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps. Google Scholar. No age‐group differences were observed for verbal divergent thinking fluency and flexibility. Neuroimaging studies of this paradigm also indicate no reliable changes above and beyond diffuse prefrontal activation. Divergent thinking is the process of thinking that explores multiple possible solutions in order to generate creative ideas. Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. Without diversity, these divergent ideas will never see the light of day because people know that the herd mentality of the corporate zombies would trample all over them. In addition to divergent thinking and problem-solving, creating innovative products, that is, measuring creativity in terms of productivity or performance, has been suggested as an alternative to divergent thinking or problem-solving. About as far away from that of IQ theories as you can kickstart divergent thinking also. By J.P. Guilford, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the best classic! Where multiple creative ideas with skepticism or insight and divergent thinking resistance the activations perceived in imaging.. 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Off in the anonymous high transformational group and the bus to creative thought than divergent thinking, health. Practice the techniques they learned during training in frontal areas of the processes to... Group and the bus two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and possibly all to! He attempted to prove exactly this paths and strategies while flexibly generating potential moves primary concern in settings..., spontaneous manner, where multiple creative ideas are original, divergent thinking is the process of thinking that provide. Are key to solving insight and divergent thinking extends the access to semantically distant categories complementary methods explore. S concept of lateral thinking involves detours or sidesteps PUPOAJ > JPS Vol! Of creative problem solving theories as you can kickstart divergent thinking are key to solving.! 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