How the gods attacked the Persian troops, and (with the help of the Delphians) drove them off (37-39). Xerxes tries to hide the massive casualties suffered at Thermopylae, but they are so numerous that Herodotus considers the attempt laughable. The Acropolis is taken; the temples are ransacked and destroyed (53). The man tells Xerxes that he is a defector, that the Greeks are in disarray and about to retreat, and that a swift Persian attack would be sure of success (75). A story about the boyhood of Alexander's ancestor, Perdiccas (137-38). His account is confirmed by the crew of a ship from the island of Tenos; for this the Tenians were later inscribed on the Delphic victory tripod (82). Apollo demands an additional offering from the Aeginetans (121-22). Greek strategy: a tight circle of ships explodes outwards. Speech of the Spartan envoys, urging the Athenians not to make a separate peace with Mardonius and Xerxes (142). - The Country and Customs of the Scythians, - A deserter from the Persian fleet provides the Greeks with vital intelligence, and the Greeks decide to fight. Ethnographic notes on the Peloponnesians (73). The veracity of the story is doubted by Hdt., on the grounds that it is improbable (119). Arguably, it also rests in Themistocles (c. 524–460 BCE), who is just the cunning leader the Greeks need. A wall which was built across the isthmus of Corinth, and the different Peloponnesians who participated in the construction (71-72). How Polycritus the Aeginetan proved himself, and reproached Themistocles for doubting him (92). Xerxes consults Artemisia about Mardonius' offer (101). By staging Proteus as king of Egypt in the Histories Herodotus breaks with the mythological tradition of Proteus as an immortal seer and sea-god. He sends a secret message to Xerxes informing him of how he, Themistocles, has convinced the Greeks not to hinder Xerxes' retreat (110). No one is fooled (24-25). An earthquake, and prayers (64). Herodotus describes the fighting in the Persian camp at great length, pointing out that the Spartans are unable to take it until the Athenians have arrived. The English Patient quizzes about important details and events in every section of the book. Disposition of ships (from Greek perspective): Athenians on the right against Phoenicians, Spartans on the left against Ionians. Course Hero, Inc. Herodotus credits Themistocles with many of the triumphs that follow. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. The story of Xerxes' eunuch Hermotimus, and the horrible revenge he got on the man who castrated him (104-6). The Persians abandon the siege of Potidaea (128-29). In accordance with their plan, the Greeks sail to Artemisium, where they see the Persian fleet. Herodotus is the guy who invented history. Themistocles argues for sailing to the Hellespont and breaking the bridges; Eurybiades argues against this, because Xerxes would be more dangerous if trapped in Europe (108). Xerxes is pleased with Artemisia's advice, but decides not to follow it (69). Course Hero. . The army crosses the Hellespont by ships, since the bridges have been destroyed by storms (117). In its first logos, we witness the naval engagement on the sea between Aphetae and Artemisium. It is in part a gripping and much revered tale of colossal confrontation between freedom-loving Greek-speaking peoples (the Athenians, Spartans, and others) and the seemingly unstoppable forces of … The Spartans must have command of the fleet even though Eurybiades seems an inferior commander to Themistocles. The Greek fleet is surrounded by the enemy ships. Some of the Greeks begin to panic, but Themistocles bribes the commander of the fleet, the Spartan Eurybiades, to hold his position. The Athenians reject Mardonius' offer, citing their faith in their bravery and in the gods (143). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale ; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information. Histories Study Guide. The Greeks prepare to fight; Themistocles exhorts the men (83). News of the defeat at Thermopylae reaches the Greek fleet, which heads south (21). This battle forms the centre-piece of book VIII of Herodotus' Histories. The battle begins. Mardonius sends his agent Mys ("Mouse") to consult the oracles (133). During the battle, Aristides uses some hoplites to retake Psyttaleia (95). The Persians sack the temples of many cities, but the gods so favor Delphi that they send a landslide and thunderstorm to shoo the Persian armies away. Roster of the Greek ships at Artemisium (1). The Corinthians furiously debate Themistocles, calling him "a man without a country", but Themistocles hold his ground (61). Pity felt by the Ionian Greeks under Xerxes for the encircled Greek fleet (10). However, the rivalry between the Greek cities continues even when they are united against a common enemy. 3. A date is given: the archonship of Calliades, or 480 B.C. Herodotus always states that for him the stories are or seem far fetched but he relates them to us, faithfully as he has heard them been narrated to him. Download a PDF to print or study offline. The agent is discovered; many Persians are drowned while trying to cross into the city. Alexander's family tree (139). Upset by the results of Thermopylae, the Greek fleet wants to retreat; but Themistocles is bribed by the Euboeans to make them stay (4). Friction between Themistocles and the Corinthians (59). Rejoicing at Susa over the capture of Athens turns to mourning over the defeat at Salamis (99). This chapter examines Herodotus' reshaping of Proteus to fit his historiographical narrative. Along the way they attempt to occupy the Temple of Apollo at Delphi (home of the oracle) but are repulsed by a landslide caused by a sudden thunderstorm. Xerxes hold a conference with his commanders, all of whom favor a sea fight at Salamis, except Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus (67). The Persian army retreats north to Thessaly; Mardonius selects his troops (113). Find summaries for every chapter, including a Histories Chapter Summary Chart to help you understand the book. "Histories Study Guide." Themistocles uses his position to extort money from other islands (112). At night, the Persian navy is beset by violent storms. (8) Next day, when the detachment fails to appear, the Greeks Others who distinguished themselves in the battle (93). Themistocles sends a double-agent to Xerxes. Thermopylae has fallen, and the plan must change. The fleet commanders are urged by the Ionians to sail against the Persians at Samos; but mutual fear keeps both fleets on opposite sides of the Aegean (132). The island of Andros refuses to contribute money for the Greek cause, and is besieged by the allies, led by Athens (111). ; 46 - Aeginetans and other islanders; 47 - one ship from the Crotoniats, Greeks of Italy; 48 - non-trireme contingents from Melia, etc. The Aftermath of Salamis & the Retreat of Xerxes. In the next couple of days, more clashes ensue, with the final engagement the most even. In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes ' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and Mycale. The English Patient Chapter IV, page 2 Philosophy of History Section 1 Salamis Preliminaries; Xerxes on the Acropolis of Athens. February 7, 2019. Course Hero. Artemisia advises that he leave Mardonius in command, since then Xerxes will have nothing to lose even if Mardonius fails; Xerxes agrees (102-3). His armies, meanwhile, continue their advance into central Greece. The angry refusal of the Phocians is motivated by hatred of Thessaly, not by Panhellenic feeling (30). 1. Heroism of the Chians in a losing cause; they brought 100 ships with 40 epibatai on each (15). Xerxes swallows the bait. The Greek fleet is reinforced from reserves at Troezen (42). Why some Spartan envoys happened to be in Athens at the time of Alexander's appeal (141). Book 9 Summary In Book 9, Herodotus concludes his account of the Persian invasion of Greece under Xerxes and Mardonius.He describes the defeat of Mardonius’ forces at Plataea and the Greek fleet’s destruction of the Persian navy at Mycale in Ionia. Next day, the Persian fleet attacks en masse in crescent formation (15). Book Seven of Herodotus ' Histories ended with a Greek defeat, but in Book Eight we will hear about Greek successes. On the beach at Euboea, Themistocles plans to split the Ionian Greeks and Carians from the Persian coalition (19). Herodotus's Histories Chapter Summary. Xerxes sends a message home; the Persian pony express is described (98). The Thessalians demand surrender, and threaten to have the Persians overrun tiny Phocis, the site of the oracle at Delphi (29). The popular story that he swam 10 miles under water is doubted by Hdt. The story of the the Thracian king who blinded his sons for serving with Xerxes (116). Themistocles acquiesces, and points out that the gods have punished Xerxes for his impious and hubristic actions (109). Herodotus wrote and compiled a history of the wars of the Grecians and Persians of the fifth century b.c.e. Some Chians escape to Ephesus, where they are mistaken for invaders and slain by the Ephesians, who are trying to protect their women who are at the Thesmophoria (16). To read The History (Herodotus' only book) is to seek one's roots as a member of Western democratic civilization. [2] Mr. Woods, for example, in his edition of the first book (published in 1873) gives a list of readings for the first Course Hero. The strategy is successful (11). After an indecisive naval engagement at Artemisium, the Persians proceed through Boeotia and devastate the Attic countryside, burning the Athenian acropolis. Eurybiades the Spartan is in command of the fleet; why the allies were unwilling to have an Athenian in command, and why they later changed their minds (2-3). The Aegean world. Herodotus' Histories, the twenty-third logos: Artemisium summary and contents by Jona Lendering ©. An Athenian story, that the Corinthians tried to sail away from the battle and had to be turned back by divine intervention, is firmly rejected by Hdt. 2015. A vote held to decide the MVP at Salamis is inconclusive, because each commander votes for himself; but they all vote Themistocles second place (123). Dispensator Humanitatum 2,662 views 15:27 Herodotus Book 8 - Duration: 11:26. Almásy keeps this book with him everywhere he goes, a fat volume that could explode at any In its first logos, we witness the naval … Next spring, what is left of the Persian fleet remains at Samos, not crossing back to Greece (130). Xerxes divides his troops; one contingent enters Boeotia, headed for Athens, while the other makes for the Delphic sanctuary (34-35). Dispensator Humanitatum 1,101 views 11:26 Ancient Rome in … [7.8] After Egypt was subdued, Xerxes, being about to take in hand the expedition against Athens, called together an assembly of the noblest Persians to learn their opinions, and to lay before them his own designs.   Terms. How Themistocles put down a detractor back in Athens (125). They fight an inconclusive battle with heavy losses on both sides (16). The storm destroys the detachment of 200 Persian ships sailing around Euboea (13). Even though they have a powerful navy, the Greeks are massively outnumbered by the Persians. The book also illuminates Greek views of themselves and of peoples from the East, the prob The Battle of Salamis was the first great (and unexpected) victory of the Greeks over the Persian forces under Xerxes, whose defeat had important consequences for the subsequent history and self-image of Europe. Themistocles visits Sparta and is greatly honored there (124). The Greeks at Salamis learn that Xerxes is in Athens; Thespia and Plataea are destroyed. (2019, February 7). So it's fitting that, through Herodotus' book, the English patient reveals his own history. preface to his specimens of a new translation of Herodotus (/Œuvres complètes de P.-L. Courier/, Bruxelles, 1828). Twenty-third logos: the naval battle off Artemisium (8.1-39) Book Seven endedwith a Greek defeat, but in Book Eight we will hear about Greek successes. Course Hero, "Histories Study Guide," February 7, 2019, accessed December 23, 2020, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Histories/. A defense of the veracity of oracles (77). The Persian Campaigns Against the Scythians. Two Persian captains who distinguished themselves (85). Web. The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι; Ancient Greek: [historíai ]; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. A deserter jumps off a Persian ship and informs the Greeks of the Persian plans and situation. Xerxes' difficulty in taking the Acropolis (52). Catalogue of Greek naval forces at Salamis (43-48). Some of the Greeks begin to panic, but Themistocles bribes the commander of the fleet, the Spartan Eurybiades, to hold his position. The naval battle off Artemisium (8.1-39) Book Seven of Herodotus' Histories ended with a Greek defeat, but in Book Eight we will hear about Greek successes. General success of the Greeks, especially Athenians and Aeginetans (86). The Persians find a few Athenians barricaded on the Acropolis, which these Athenians think is the oracle's "wooden wall" (51). Delphi is evacuated; Apollo says he will protect the temple treasures (36). (8) Next day, when the detachment fails to appear, the Greeks decide to attack the main fleet (9). How Artemisia escaped death by ramming a ship of her own side (87). A detachment of 200 Persian ships tries to sail around Euboea and surprise the Greeks (7). A deserter jumps off a Persian ship and informs the Greeks of the Persian plans and situation. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! Chapter Summary Book 1, The Story of Croesus Herodotus opens by stating Herodotus has been called the “father of history.”An engaging narrator with a deep interest in the customs of the people he described, he remains the leading source of original historical information not only for Greece between 550 and 479 BCE but also for much of western Asia and Egypt at that time. 7 Feb. 2019. Artemisia wisely urges Xerxes to wait and allow the fragile Panhellenic coalition to break up; she points out the worthlessness of some of his allied forces (68). Summary of Herodotus Arms of TCS This is a chapter-by-chapter summary, with occasional notes, of the Histories of Herodotus, based mostly on the translation by Peter Greene (1987), with occasional reference to translations by A.D. Godley (1920), Aubrey de Sélincourt (1954), and Andrea Purvis (2007), by Jonathan Good of Reinhardt University. Themistocles convinces Eurybiades, the Spartan commander, to reconvene the council (58). The Greek fleet sails to Aegina under Leotychidas the Spartan; his genealogy (131). The Greek commander was the admiral of the small Spartan squadron, a man named Eurybiades. Alexander addresses the Athenians, urging them to accept an honorable settlement with Xerxes or face destruction (140).   Privacy Some Athenian exiles in Xerxes' camp sacrifice on the Acropolis; the miraculous growth of an olive tree at the Erectheum (54-55). 43 - Peloponnesians; 44 - Athenians (and how the Plataeans got left behind); 45 - Megarians, etc. Themistocles argues for the strategic advantages of fighting in the narrow waters near Salamis (60). Copyright © 2020. One oracle was delivered to Mardonius in Carian (135). This is not because the Persians have beaten them, but because of the defeat at Thermopylae. The Histories Herodotus TRANSLATED BY GEORGE RAWLINSON BOOK 1 THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in … The two-pronged defense planned by the Greeks anticipated a victory at Thermopylae. How some Phoenician captains, whose ships were accidentally sunk by their own side, tried to blame the Ionians, and were themselves executed when a Samothracian ship proved the loyalty of the Ionians to Xerxes (90). There is continued debate at Salamis, since some Peloponnesian commanders still want to retreat to the isthmus (74). MVPs were the Egyptians, on the Persian side, and the Athenians on the Greek side (17). The march of Xerxes back to the Hellespont, and the many deaths in the army from plague and hunger (115). Themistocles urges him to tell the allied commanders himself (80). The Athenians plan to evacuate Attica, and halt the Greek fleet at Salamis for this purpose; but the Peloponnesians are planning to make their stand further south, at the Isthmus of Corinth (40). Summary Herodotus records the size and composition of the Greek fleet—271 ships in total. Accessed December 23, 2020. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Histories/. Have study documents to share about Histories? The Greeks make offerings to Delphi in thanks for the victory at Salamis. Original article by Herodotus. In response to the Spartan envoys, the Athenians remind them of the sacrifices Athens has made for Greece, and urge the Spartans to prepare to fight a major land battle in Boeotia. Phocis is overrun by the Persians without a battle; atrocities of the Persian troops against people, property, and temples (31-33). 23 Dec. 2020. An embassy is sent by the Thessalians to the Phocians; how the Phocians had hurt the Thessalians in their border war before the Persian invasion (27-28). The Persian fleet advances; Persians occupy the northern tip of Euboea (23). The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson Table of Contents Book IV Melpomene After the taking of Babylon, an expedition was led by Darius into Scythia. The Persian fleet prepares to attack the Greeks at Artemisium (6). Herodotus Book 1 - Duration: 15:27. A demand by the Spartans for reparations is laughed off by Xerxes with a threat (114). Mardonius sends Alexander of Macedon to negotiate with Athens (136). (17 mb, .pdf -- rev. How Artabazus exchanged a secret message with an accomplice inside Potidaea. It was home to a prophetic oracle famous for predicting the future. Themistocles appeals to Eurybiades, and hints that the Athenian fleet may desert the alliance (62). Various oracular seats visited by Mys; why the Thessalians are not allowed to consult the oracle of Amphiaraus (134). Submitted by Jan van der Crabben , published on 18 January 2012 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike . The Persian fleet proceeds toward Salamis; the Greek fleet feels cornered (70). In retreat from Euboea, Themistocles leaves inscribed messages urging the Ionian Greeks to defect (22). In the ensuing battle, the Greeks capture 30 Persian ships before sailing away. The Persian fleet retreats (107). 53 triremes arrive from Athens in reinforcement; a minor skirmish takes place (14). The Greek fleet retreats southwards (18). After it has been looted and the dead have been buried, the Greek allies move Retrieved December 23, 2020, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Histories/. Herodotus shows his belief in divine intervention with the story of the miraculous delivery of Delphi, home of the famous oracle. In Course Hero. Herodotus records the size and composition of the Greek fleet—271 ships in total. Summary of and commentary on Herodotus' Histories, book 7 2015 In-text: (Summary of and commentary on Herodotus' Histories, book 7, 2015) Your Bibliography: Livius.org. Further evidence in support of Hdt. Aristides does so, but he is not believed (81). Herodotus' Histories is the first major surviving prose work from antiquity. Herodotus THE HISTORY General Index BOOK 1 - CLIO BOOK 2 - EUTERPE BOOK 3 - THALIA BOOK 4 - MELPOMENE BOOK 5 - TERPSICHORE BOOK 6 - ERATO BOOK 7 - POLYMNIA BOOK 8 BOOK … Night falls, and with it another violent storm (12). July 2013) This link contains a free pdf copy of Herodotus Book I: Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary, 2nd ed. The Persian fleet nears Salamis; Xerxes' numbers are increased by recent arrivals (66). When a messenger arrives to inform the Greeks of the defeat at Thermopylae, the Greek navy retreats from Artemisium. Delphi was one of the largest and wealthiest temples in Greece, dedicated to the god Apollo. Xerxes arranges the corpses from Thermopylae to appear as if the contest had been even, then displays them to his own troops. The popular story that he swam 10 miles under water is doubted by Hdt. 2. Course Hero. A war council is held at Salamis; the Peloponnesians urge retreat to the isthmus (49). Themistocles is urged by Mnesiphilus, an Athenian, to prevent this retreat (57). Hdt knows a story that Xerxes sailed all the way home in a ship, and made his retinue jump overboard to lighten the vessel in a storm (118). The Greeks have to retreat from Artemisium. (50). 's version of Xerxes' return to Asia Minor (120). The oligarch (supporter of rule by a few, especially the aristocracy but could also be the best educated) points out the inherent danger of democracy -- mob rule. Her luck in getting away with this, as Xerxes was watching from shore (88). Artabazus, returning from escorting Xerxes through Thrace, decides to retake Potidaea and Olynthus (126). The Persian fleet positions are unknown to the Greeks (78). Mardonius, to protect himself, urges Xerxes to keep fighting in Greece, or to go home and leave him, Mardonius, in command of 300,000 troops (100). So, when the Xerxes in Greece: between Thermopylae and Salamis. Themistocles allegedly has an ulterior motive, namely the future good will of Xerxes, should he need it. Dionysius escapes to Sicily with three captured ships and becomes a pirate (17). I wish historians nowadays would be as honest as Herodotus was in his time. Olynthus falls (127). "Histories Study Guide." The story is told by Dicaeus the Athenian concerning the divine apparition of the procession for Demeter and Kore; clearly a bad omen for Xerxes (65). The battle ends with the retreat of those Persian ships not yet destroyed; another prophecy is fulfilled (96). A hasty decision to evacuate Attica is carried out (41; but epigraphical evidence (the "Decree of Themistocles") may be proof that the decision had in fact been made much earlier). Xerxes plans to return to Persia; his ruse to make it appear that he intends to stay (97). An oracle is ignored by the Euboeans (20). Casualties occur on both sides; but the Greeks' ability to swim saves many of them (89). Persian troops land on Psyttaleia to kill any shipwrecked Greeks who might swim ashore, and the Persian fleet is positioned to block the egress from the bay (76). The Persian fleet is in confusion; incredibly, the Athenians and Aeginetans cooperate with each other (91). Herodotus'Histories, book 8. summary and comments by JonaLendering. Histories Book 8 Summary & Analysis Book 8 Summary Book 8 traces the movements of the Greek and Persian forces after the battle of Thermopylae, as Xerxes continues his march toward Attica. Eurybiades is convinced; the council decides to fight at Salamis (63). Herodotus Book 1 Commentary 2nd ed. ; the total is 378 ships. This is why they avoid direct confrontation and instead try to launch hit-and-run attacks, or lure the Persians into narrow passages of water. Although the Greeks have lost at Thermopylae, their real strength rests in their fleet. Aristides (the Athenian politician) arrives at Salamis and tells Themistocles that the Greek fleet is hemmed in (79). Copyright © 2016. In accordance with their plan, the Greeks sail to Artemisium, where they see the Persian fleet. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Book 8 - URANIA [8.1] THE Greeks engaged in the sea-service were the following. The Spartan and Corinthian commanders are cut in by Themistocles, and their objections are quieted (5). The council at Salamis votes to retreat to the isthmus (56). and the rest of Greece (94). Book 1 - CLIO Book 2 - EUTERPE Book 3 - THALIA Book 4 - MELPOMENE Book 5 - TERPSICHORE Book 6 - ERATO Book 7 - POLYMNIA Book 8 - URANIA Book 9 - CALLIOPE Brief history of Persia - tiny index to Herodotus An Athenian/Aeginetan controversy over which ship struck first (84). Persians react with surprise upon hearing that the Olympic games have no cash prizes (26). 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